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508 articles

AN584 – Sintering of a WC + Co pellet

Sintering is a process for making objects from powder, increasing the adhesion between particles as they are heated. It is used with ceramic powders and in powder metallurgy. Sintering is related to diffusion. Tungsten carbide is generally prepared from a powder containing WC and Cobalt as a bind.

AN585 – TG FTIR analysis of a carbon fiber Private content

Carbon fiber is most notably used to reinforce composite materials, particularly the class of materials known as carbon fiber or graphite reinforced polymers. A common method of making carbon filaments is the oxidation and thermal pyrolysis of polyacrilonitrile (PAN). The interest of the TG + FTIR is to quantify the non pyrolyzed material and to identify the substances remained with the final carbon fiber.

AN551 – Hydration of hydratable alumina Private content

The objective of this work is to determine, by thermogravimetry, the difference in the hydration products between the mixtures of hydratable alumina with reactive magnesia and those of hydratable alumina with deadburnt or fused magnesite powder.

AN534 – Analysis of sewage sludges by thermogravimetry Private content

The aim of this paper is to predict the behavior of sewage sludges, the principal waste produced by a sewage treatment plant, in combustion or pyrolysis by thermogravimetric analysis and determine, from that, the parameter PII/(PI+PII).

AN535 – Pyrolysis of waste tyres Private content

Thermogravimetric method was used to obtain previous information about the thermal decomposition process of the tyre material. Then, the gas generated during the pyrolysis was analyzed by gas chromatography.

AN501 – Oxidation behavior of Ti3AlC2 powders in flowing air Private content

the oxidation behaviour of Ti3AlC2 powders has been investigated in air by means of simultaneous TGA-DSC, XRD, Raman spectra, SEM, EDS and BET specific surface measurement to understand the intrinsic oxidation behaviour of this newly developed ternary compound.

AN500 – Improving the oxidation resistance of Ti3SiC2 by forming a Ti3Si0,9Al0,1C2 solid solution Private content

Ti3Si(Al)C2 solid solutions with different Al contents were prepared by substituting a small amount of Si with Al. The results demonstrated that the substitution of Si with 10 at % of Al dramatically improved the oxidation resistance and eliminated TiC. The oxidation behavior of the Ti3Si0,9Al0,1C2 solid solution in air was then investigated at 1000-1350 °C. The oxide layers were dense, adher ent and resistant to thermal cycling.

AN396 – Study of a Thermite Reaction: Fe2O3 + 2 Al –> Al2O3 + 2 Fe

A thermite reaction (a type of aluminothermic reaction) is one in which aluminium metal is oxidized by an oxide of another metal, most commonly iron oxide. Although the reactants are stable at room temperature, when they are exposed to sufficient heat to ignite, they burn with an extremely intense exothermic reaction. Thermite contains its own supply of oxygen, and does not require any external source (such as air). Consequently, it cannot be smothered and may ignite in any environment (it will burn perfectly well underwater, for example), given sufficient initial heat.
Such a reaction can be successfully be studied by drop calorimetry and its heat measured.

AN397 – Direct Calorimetric Measurement of Enthalpies of Phase Transitions at 2000°C-2400°C in Yttria and Zirconia

High-temperature differential thermal analysis provided data on phase transitions in zirconia and yttria. The tetragonal form of ZrO2 transforms to the cubic fluorite structure at 2311±15°C with an enthalpy of 3.4±2 kJ/mol. Cubic C-type Y2O3 transforms, probably to the fluorite structure, at 2308±15°C with DH=47.7±3.0 kJ/mol. This high-temperature polymorph melts at 2382±15°C with an enthalpy of fusion of 35.6±3.0 kJ/mol.

AN380 – Study of a process in off normal conditions : synthesis and decomposition of a diazo compound using the C80 safety vessel. Private content

Before carrying out chemical processes in pilot or production plants, they are subject to a thorough risk analysis. As a part of the risk analysis related to a chemical process, thermochemical data are needed to assess the thermal risks.
The heat of the reaction, the energy released in case of triggering the decomposition reaction, the amount of gas released during a runaway, etc are current questions during a risk analysis in a the chemical industry.
The Swiss Institute of Safety and Security in Basle has designed in collaboration with Setaram a new Mini-Reactor adapted to the study of chemical reactions in order to determine rapidly the data required for a first screening of the thermal risks.

AN361 – Melting of butters and margarine by DSC

Butters and margarines are mainly composed of droplets of water (about a concentration of 16%) in a fatty matrix. The proportions of these components induce the thermal characteristics of the final product. In the industry, determination of their thermal profiles is essential to control their properties in term of “easy-to-spread” and good thermal stability, especially at room temperature. The DSC technique is the ideal tool for such investigations

AN351 – Controlled sintering rate of hydroxyapatite (1) Private content

The densification which occurs during the sintering process allows to obtain chemically, thermally and mechanically stable materials. However, the properties of the materials can be still improved by maintaining a constant and not too fast rate of shrinkage during the sintering (see application sheet AN350).
With a specific software package it is possible to simulate a sintering process at a constant rate of shrinkage, the temperature scanning rate being controlled simultaneously.

AN352 – Controlled sintering rate of hydroxyapatite (2) Private content

During a test with controlled sintering rate, the heating rate is no more constant but decreases if the sintering rate becomes higher than the preset value. The enlargement of the previous temperature curve shows the temperature profile required to obtain a sintering process at a rate which never exceeds the preset value.

AN354 – Flexure of epoxy printed circuit boards Private content

Printed circuit (PC) boards are composed of several conducting layers intercalated with epoxy resin prepreg layers. These different layers are pressed together and then heated until reticulation. After reticulation, the thermal expansion coefficient of the PC board is lowered, which prevents metallic wires soldered on it from being broken. In flexure mode, the sample is supported by two parallel edges ; a load is applied on an edge-ended probe which comes to rest in the middle of the sample.

AN344 – Correlation between TMA and DSC data of PET Private content

Glass transition, softening, crystallization, melting are events which cause a change in the characteristic properties of a compound like its heat capacity or its thermal expansion coefficient. These changes can be observed by both DSC and TMA measurements.

AN345 – Characterization of glass

The Setsys 92, equipped with a furnace composed of a metal heating coil surrounding an inner silica tube, allows experiments to be carried out up to 1200°C. Thus, glasses can be characterized by different parameters such as : the glass transition temperature, the softening point, the true and average coefficients of thermal expansion ?.

AN346 – Expansion of carbon powder Private content

With the SetsysTMA, it is possible to study the thermomechanical behavior of powder samples. The powder is contained in a crucible, the height and external diameter of which are respectively 20 mm and 10 mm. A flat-ended probe, with a diameter end of 7 mm, is brought into contact with the sample within the crucible.

AN347 – Thermomechanical behavior of Ni-based superalloy Private content

For numerous industrial applications, metallic alloys need to have a high resistance to oxidation and corrosion and good mechanical properties, especially between 700 and 1000°C. Among them, Nickel-based superalloys are often used with additive elements such as Chromium to resist oxidation and Molybdenum, Titanium and Niobium to reinforce the initial metallic matrix.